# Slides: Relationships in Data

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

ST101 – DR. ARIC LABARR

EXPLORING DATA RELATIONSHIPS

Exploring data reveals potential insights and valuable uses of that information.

Visuals help explore data.

Distributions, bar charts, stacked bar charts, boxplots, scatterplots, etc.

Are visuals enough?

BOXPLOTS

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

EXAMPLE – BIKE RENTAL DATA

Boxplots are visual representations of 5 (and sometimes more!) summary measures about a set of data.

Minimum value

1st quartile

Median

3rd quartile

Maximum value

5 NUMBER SUMMARY

Boxplots are visual representations of 5 (and sometimes more!) summary measures about a set of data.

Minimum value

1st quartile

Median

3rd quartile

Maximum value

5 NUMBER SUMMARY

The minimum value of a variable is numerically lowest value that the variable takes.

Here are the lowest temperatures from our bike rental data (°F): 22.6°, 25.8°, 25.8°, 26.7°, …

MINIMUM VALUE

The minimum value of a variable is numerically lowest value that the variable takes.

Here are the lowest temperatures from our bike rental data (°F): 22.6°, 25.8°, 25.8°, 26.7°, …

MINIMUM VALUE

Minimum value

A percentile provides information about how the data are spread over the interval from the smallest values to the largest value.

The pth percentile of a data set is a value such that at least p percent of the items take on this value or less and at least (100 - p) percent of the items take on this value or more.

For example, the student’s test score was in the 93rd percentile.

QUARTILES AND PERCENTILES

Quartiles are specific percentiles that are commonly used.

The first quartile, Q1, is the 25th percentile.

The second quartile is the 50th percentile, which we already defined – the median.

The third quartile, Q3, is the 75th percentile.

QUARTILES AND PERCENTILES

Quartiles are calculated in similar ways as the median with all data ordered from smallest to largest.

Typically, let computers do this calculation.

In our bike rental data, these are the quartiles:

Q1 = 46.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

Q3 = 73.08°F

QUARTILE CALCULATION

The interquartile range (IQR) of a data set if the difference between the third and first quartiles:

This is the middle 50% of the data set and is not bothered by extreme observations in the tails of the data set.

INTERQUARTILE RANGE (IQR)

In our bike rental data, these are the quartiles:

Q1 = 46.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

Q3 = 73.08°F

INTERQUARTILE RANGE (IQR)

The maximum value of a variable is numerically highest value that the variable takes.

Here are the highest temperatures from our bike rental data (°F): … , 88.5°, 89.4°, 89.4°, 90.5°

MAXIMUM VALUE

The maximum value of a variable is numerically highest value that the variable takes.

Here are the highest temperatures from our bike rental data (°F): … , 88.5°, 89.4°, 89.4°, 90.5°

MAXIMUM VALUE

Maximum value

BOXPLOT

Boxplots are visual representations of 5 (and sometimes more!) summary measures about a set of data.

Maximum value = 90.50°F

3rd quartile = 73.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

1st quartile = 46.08°F

Minimum value = 22.60°F

BOXPLOT

Boxplots are visual representations of 5 (and sometimes more!) summary measures about a set of data.

Maximum value = 90.50°F

3rd quartile = 73.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

Mean = 59.51°F

1st quartile = 46.08°F

Minimum value = 22.60°F

EXAMPLE – BIKE RENTAL DATA

Outliers

The minimum and maximum value lines are now the maximum and minimum values within an outlier boundary of the IQR.

Anything outside of this boundary (low or high) is considered an outlier.

OUTLIERS ON A BOXPLOT

1.5 IQR RULE

1.5 IQR RULE

Bike Data:

Maximum value = 90.50°F

3rd quartile = 73.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

1st quartile = 46.08°F

Minimum value = 22.60°F

IQR = 27

1.5 IQR RULE

Bike Data:

Maximum value = 90.50°F

3rd quartile = 73.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

1st quartile = 46.08°F

Minimum value = 22.60°F

IQR = 27

1.5 IQR RULE

Bike Data:

Maximum value = 90.50°F

3rd quartile = 73.08°F

Median = 59.76°F

1st quartile = 46.08°F

Minimum value = 22.60°F

IQR = 27

1.5 IQR RULE

EXAMPLE – BIKE RENTAL DATA

Outliers

Boxplots are visual representations of 5 (and sometimes more!) summary measures about a set of data.

Minimum value – smallest value in a variable

1st quartile – 25th percentile of a variable

Median – 50th percentile of a variable

Mean – average value of the variable

3rd quartile – 75th percentile of a variable

Maximum value – largest value of a variable

Outliers – anything outside of the 1.5 IQR Rule boundary on your variable

SUMMARY

IDEA OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA)

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

DOES WINTER HAVE LOWER AVERAGE TOTAL USERS?

DOES WINTER HAVE LOWER AVERAGE TOTAL USERS?

Winter looks to belower on average!

DOES WINTER HAVE LOWER AVERAGE TOTAL USERS?

Look at how spread outthe values of users inwinter are!

When comparing averages between two groups of data, we must think about how spread out the data is.

Compare the 5 number summary between Summer and Winter.

COMPARING AVERAGES

COMPARING AVERAGES

Summer 5ish Number Summary

Maximum: 8714

3rd Quartile: 6954

Mean: 5644.3

Median: 5354

1st Quartile: 4580

Minimum: 1115

Winter 5ish Number Summary

Maximum: 7836

3rd Quartile: 3472

Mean: 2604.1

Median: 2209

1st Quartile: 1534

Minimum: 431

COMPARING AVERAGES

Summer 5ish Number Summary

Maximum: 8714

3rd Quartile: 6954

Mean: 5644.3

Median: 5354

1st Quartile: 4580

Minimum: 1115

Winter 5ish Number Summary

Maximum: 7836

3rd Quartile: 3472

Mean: 2604.1

Median: 2209

1st Quartile: 1534

Minimum: 431

When comparing averages between two groups of data, we must think about how spread out the data is.

Compare the 5 number summary between Summer and Winter.

When comparing many averages statistically we call this an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

Need to account for the spread in the data when comparing means!

COMPARING AVERAGES

When comparing many groups’ averages statistically we call this an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Need to account for the spread in the data when comparing means.

SUMMARY

INTERPRETING SCATTERPLOTS

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

EXAMPLE – BIKE RENTAL DATA

Scatterplots are visual representations of comparing two different quantitative variables.

For each observation in your data, you are looking at the value of two quantitative variables which are plotted one on each axis in the plot.

SCATTERPLOT

EXAMPLE – BIKE RENTAL DATA

Date

Weekday

Season

Weather Type

Temperature

(°F)

Humidity

(%)

# Casual Users

# Registered Users

1/1/2011

Saturday

Winter

Misty

46.7

80.6

331

654

1/2/2011

Sunday

Winter

Misty

48.4

69.6

131

670

1/3/2011

Monday

Winter

Clear /

Partly Cloudy

34.2

43.7

120

1229

1/4/2011

Tuesday

Winter

Clear /

Partly Cloudy

34.5

59.0

108

1454

1/5/2011

Wednesday

Winter

Clear /

Partly Cloudy

36.8

43.7

82

1518

…

EXAMPLE – BIKE RENTAL DATA

Temperature = 46.7, Registered Users = 654

VISUALIZING RELATIONSHIPS

Viewing the relationship between two quantitative variables on a scatterplot is very beneficial.

Linear relationship – relationship between variables that exhibits a fairly straight / linear pattern

Nonlinear relationship – relationship between variables that exhibits a pattern that is nonlinear in nature

VISUALIZING RELATIONSHIPS

Viewing the relationship between two quantitative variables on a scatterplot is very beneficial.

Positive relationship – as one variable increases (or decreases) the other has a tendency to do the same

Negative relationship – as one variable increases (or decreases) the other has a tendency to do the opposite

POSITIVE AND RELATIVELY LINEAR RELATIONSHIP

Scatterplots are visual representations of comparing two different quantitative variables, which are plotted one on each axis in the plot.

Positive relationship – as one variable increases (or decreases) the other has a tendency to do the same

Negative relationship – as one variable increases (or decreases) the other has a tendency to do the opposite

SUMMARY

CORRELATION

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

CORRELATION

46

The Pearson correlation coefficient is unit less – no units when describing it.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

47

The Pearson correlation coefficient is unit less – no units when describing it.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Bounded between -1 and 1

48

The Pearson correlation coefficient is unit less – no units when describing it.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Negative values implya negative linear relationship

49

The Pearson correlation coefficient is unit less – no units when describing it.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Positive values implya positive linearrelationship

50

The Pearson correlation coefficient is unit less – no units when describing it.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Values near 0 impliesno real linearrelationship

51

Values of 1 or -1 imply a perfect linear relationship between y and x.

CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

52

CORRELATION OF 0.54

CORRELATION OF -0.22

POTENTIAL ISSUES WITH CORRELATION

Two of the biggest problems with correlation are the following:

Outliers

Causation

OUTLIERS IN CORRELATION

Outliers can lead to false conclusions about correlation if you don’t visualize the data to help us see what might be going on.

Outliers can make relationships that aren’t really there.

OUTLIERS IN CORRELATION

Outliers can lead to false conclusions about correlation if you don’t visualize the data to help us see what might be going on.

Outliers can make relationships that aren’t really there.

OUTLIERS IN CORRELATION

Outliers can lead to false conclusions about correlation if you don’t visualize the data to help us see what might be going on.

Outliers can hide relationships that are really there.

OUTLIERS IN CORRELATION

Outliers can hide relationships that are really there.

SUMMARY

CORRELATION AND CAUSATION

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

POTENTIAL ISSUES WITH CORRELATION

Two of the biggest problems with correlation are the following:

Outliers

Causation

CORRELATION OF 0.54

Confusing correlation and causation is a common phenomena.

All correlation implies is a linear trend may exist between two variables of interest.

Many famous examples of correlations that are not causations.

CORRELATION VS. CAUSATION

64

Ice cream sales are positively correlated with shark attacks.

Is it because we taste better with more ice cream?

CLASSIC EXAMPLE

Ice Cream Sales

Shark Attacks

?

65

Ice cream sales are positively correlated with shark attacks.

Is it because we taste better with more ice cream?

What else may be causing this relationship?

CLASSIC EXAMPLE

Ice Cream Sales

Shark Attacks

?

66

Ice cream sales are positively correlated with shark attacks.

Is it because we taste better with more ice cream?

What else may be causing this relationship?

CLASSIC EXAMPLE

Ice Cream Sales

Shark Attacks

X

High Temperatures

More Swimming

67

In some examples, there is an underlying factor that is related to both of the correlated variables.

Not always the case:

Divorce rate in Maine and US consumption of margarine per person.

US consumption of mozzarella cheese (per person) and awarded PhD’s in civil engineering.

Decrease in number of pirates and increase in global warming.

Many, many more…

CORRELATION VS. CAUSATION

Correlation does not imply causation.

In some examples, there is an underlying factor that is related to both of the correlated variables, but not always the case.

SUMMARY

IDEA OF REGRESSION

RELATIONSHIPS IN DATA

CORRELATION IS NOT EVERYTHING

Correlation is a measure of strength of a linear relationship but does not say what the linear relationship is.

Plot has two sets of data with exact same correlation of 0.99.

However, the relationship is different between the two.

REGRESSION MODELING

Many people across industries devote research funding to discover how variables are related (modeling).

The simplest graphical technique to relate two quantitative variables is through a straight-line relationship – called the simple linear regression (SLR) model.

Most models are more extensive and complicated than SLR models, but SLR models form a good foundation.

BIKE DATA EXAMPLE

What if you wanted to predict the number of registered users based on the temperature outside?

What is the best guess line for the following?

SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL

Simple Linear Regression:

Intercept

Slope

74

BIKE DATA EXAMPLE

Simple Linear Regression:

Intercept

BIKE DATA EXAMPLE

Simple Linear Regression:

Slope

SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL

The intercept is the value of the average of the registered users when the temperature equals zero.

The slope is the average increase in the registered users with a one degree (F) increase in the temperature.

BIKE DATA EXAMPLE

What if you wanted to predict the number of registered users based on the temperature outside?

What is the best guess line for the following?

MORE COMPLICATED MODELING

Models can be more complicated than just straight-line relationships.

Beyond the scope of this course.

Correlation is a measure of strength of a linear relationship but does not say what the linear relationship is.

The simplest graphical technique to relate two quantitative variables is through a straight-line relationship – called the simple linear regression (SLR) model.

The intercept is the value of the average of the y-axis variable when the x-axis variable equals zero.

The slope is the average increase in the y-axis variable with a one-unit increase in the x-axis variable.

SUMMARY